November 6, 2003

San Sebastian-Gomera - Spain - Europe: day 339: As Earth Warms, the Hottest Issue Is Energy

Biking total: 43 days, 1877 km, 13'400 altimeters.
Climbing total: 174 days, 3000 km, 104'451 altimeters.
Sailing total: 122 days, 3403 nm

Rob Creemers from the Netherlands forwarded us a very interesting New-York-Times-article published on 04-11-03:

Suppose that over the next decade or two the forecasts of global warming start to come true. Color has drained from New England's autumns as maple trees die, and the Baltimore oriole can no longer be found south of Buffalo.
The Dust Bowl has returned to the Great Plains, and Arctic ice is melting into open water. Upheavals in weather, the environment and life are accelerating around the world.

Then what?

If global warming occurs as predicted, there will be no easy way to turn the Earth's thermostat back down. The best that most scientists would hope for would be to slow and then halt the warming, and that would require a top-to-bottom revamping of the world's energy systems, shifting from fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas to alternatives that in large part do not yet exist.

"We have to face the fact this is an enormous challenge," said Dr. Martin I. Hoffert, a professor of physics at New York University.

But interviews with scientists, environment advocates and industry representatives show that there is no consensus in how to meet that challenge. Some look to the traditional renewable energy sources: solar and wind. Others believe use of fossil fuels will continue, but that the carbon dioxide can be captured and then stored underground. The nuclear power industry hopes concern over global warming may help spur a revival.

In an article in the journal Science last November, Dr. Hoffert and 17 other experts looked at alternatives to fossil fuels and found all to have "severe deficiencies in their ability to stabilize global climate."

The scientists believe that technological fixes are possible. Dr. Hoffert said the country needed to embark on an energy research program on the scale of the Manhattan Project that built the atomic bomb during World War II or the Apollo program that put men on the moon.

"Maybe six or seven of them operating simultaneously," he said. "We should be prepared to invest several hundred billion dollars in the next 10 to 15 years."

But to even have a hope of finding a solution, the effort must begin now, the scientists said. A new technology usually takes several decades to develop the underlying science, build pilot projects and then begin commercial deployment.

The authors of the Science paper expect that a smorgasbord of energy sources will be needed, and they call for intensive research on radical ideas like vast solar arrays orbiting Earth that can collect sunlight and beam the energy down. "Many concepts will fail, and staying the course will require leadership," they wrote. "Stabilizing climate is not easy."

The heart of the problem is carbon dioxide, the main byproduct from the burning of fossil fuels. When the atmosphere is rich in carbon dioxide, heat is trapped, producing a greenhouse effect. Most scientists believe the billions of tons of carbon dioxide released since the start of the Industrial Revolution are in part to blame for the one-degree rise in global temperatures over the past century. Carbon dioxide concentrations are now 30 percent higher than preindustrial levels.

With rising living standards in developing nations, emissions of carbon dioxide are increasing, and the pace of warming is expected to speed up, too. Unchecked, carbon dioxide would reach twice preindustrial levels by midcentury and perhaps double again by the end of the century. That could force temperatures up by 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100, according to computer models.

Because carbon dioxide is colorless, odorless and disperses immediately into the air, few realize how much spills out of tailpipes and smokestacks. An automobile, for example, generates perhaps 50 to 100 tons of carbon dioxide in its lifetime.

The United States produces more carbon dioxide than any other country by far. Each American, on average, generates about 45,000 pounds of carbon dioxide a year. That is about twice as much as the average person living in Japan or Europe and many times more than someone living in a developing country like Zimbabwe, China or Panama. (Even if the United States achieves President Bush's goal of an 18 percent reduction in the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions by 2012, the output of an average American would still far exceed that of almost anyone else in the world.)

Even if all emissions stop, levels of carbon dioxide in the air will remain high for centuries as the Earth gradually absorbs the excess.

Currently, the world's energy use per second is about 12 trillion watts — which would light up 120 billion 100-watt bulbs — and 85 percent of that comes from fossil fuels.

Of the remaining 15 percent, nuclear and hydroelectric power each supply about 6.5 percent. The renewable energy sources often touted as the hope for the future — wind and solar — provide less than 2 percent.

In March, Dr. Hoffert and two colleagues reported in Science that to limit the temperature increase to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, non-carbon-dioxide-emitting sources would have to generate 7 trillion to 25 trillion watts by midcentury, 4 to 14 times as much as current levels. That is roughly equivalent to adding a large emissions-free power plant every day for the next 50 years.

And by the end of the century, they wrote, at least three-quarters and maybe all of the world's energy would have to be emission-free.

No existing technology appears capable of filling that void. The futuristic techology might be impractically expensive. Developing a solar power satellite, for example, has been estimated at more than $200 billion.

Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham cited the Science paper from last November in a speech at the American Academy in Berlin two months ago. Mr. Abraham said that merely setting limits and timetables on carbon dioxide like those in the Kyoto Protocol could not by themselves solve global warming.

"We will also need to develop the revolutionary technologies that make these reductions happen," Mr. Abraham said. "That means creating the kinds of technologies that do not simply refine current energy systems, but actually transform the way we produce and consume energy."

Too Far Away

Some long-hoped-for options will almost certainly not be ready. Fusion — producing energy by combining hydrogen atoms into helium, the process that lights up the sun — has been heralded for decades as a potentially limitless energy source, but scientists still have not shown it can be harnessed practically. Experimental fusion reactors do not yet produce more power than they take to run.

Increased energy efficiency — like better-insulated buildings, more efficient air-conditioners, higher mileage cars — is not a solution by itself, but it could buy more time to develop cleaner energy.

The much-talked-about hydrogen economy, in which gasoline-powered engines are replaced by fuel cells, is also not a solution. It merely shifts the question to what power source is used to produce the hydrogen.

Today, most hydrogen is made from natural gas, a process that produces carbon dioxide that is then released into the air. Hydrogen can also be produced by splitting apart water atoms, but that takes more energy than the hydrogen will produce in the fuel cell. If the electricity to split the water comes from the coal-fired power plant, then a hydrogen car would not cut carbon dioxide emissions.

Exploiting What's Here

A fundamental problem remains: how to produce electricity without carbon dioxide.

Hydroelectric power has reached its limits in most parts of the world; there are no more rivers to dam.

Nuclear power is a proven technology to generate large amounts of electricity, but before it could be expanded, the energy industry would have to overcome longstanding public fears that another accident, like those at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl, will occur. Solutions also need to be found for disposing of radioactive spent fuel and safeguarding it from terrorists.

Marvin Fertel, senior vice president of the Nuclear Energy Institute, an industry group, said warming had become such a worry that some environmental groups were becoming amenable to new nuclear plants. "In private, that's what we get from them," he said.

Researchers at the Electric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, Calif., espouse a major expansion of nuclear power, coupled with a switch from gasoline to hydrogen to power cars and trucks. Electricity from the nuclear plants would split water to produce hydrogen, and then cables made of superconductors would distribute both electricty and hydrogen, which would double as coolant for the cables, across the country.

"I think in 30 to 50 years there will be systems like this," said Dr. Chauncey Starr, the institute's founder and emeritus president. "I think the advantages of this are sufficient to justify it."

In the short run, fossil fuels will still be widely used, but it is still possible to control carbon dioxide.

In his Berlin speech, Mr. Abraham highlighted two projects the Energy Department was working on: carbon sequestration — the capturing of carbon dioxide before it is emitted and storing it underground — and FutureGen, a $1 billion prototype coal power plant that will produce few emissions. The plant will seek to demonstrate by 2020 how to convert coal to hydrogen on a commercial scale that will then be used to generate electricity in fuel cells or turbines. The waste carbon dioxide would be captured and stored.

The technology for injecting carbon dioxide is straightforward, but scientists need better knowledge on suitable locations and leak prevention.

Sequestration, however, will probably not be cost-effective for current power plants. The filters for capturing carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas will by themselves consume 20 percent to 30 percent of the power plant's electricity.

Renewing Renewables

Solar is still a future promise. The cost of energy from solar cells has dropped sharply in the past few decades. One kilowatt-hour of electricity — the energy to light a 100-watt bulb for 10 hours — used to cost several dollars when produced by solar cells. Now it is only about 35 cents. With fossil fuels, a kilowatt-hour costs just a few cents.

But solar still has much room for improvement. Commercial cells are only 10 to 15 percent efficient. With much more research, new strategies to absorb sunlight more efficiently could lead to cells that reached 50 to 60 percent efficiency. If the cells could be made cheaply enough, they could produce electricity for only 1 or 2 cents a kilowatt-hour.

Dr. Arthur Nozik, a senior research fellow at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., said the advanced solar concepts were scientifically feasible. But, echoing Dr. Hoffert, Dr. Nozik said: "We need like a Manhattan Project or an Apollo program to put a lot more resources into solving the problem. It's going to require a revolution, not an evolution. I wouldn't expect to get there in 2050 if we're going at the same pace."

But if scientists succeed with a cheap, efficient solar cell, "you'd be on Easy Street," Dr. Nozik said.

Wind power is already practical in many places like Denmark, where 17 percent of the electricity comes from wind turbines. The newest turbines, with propellers as wide in diameter as a football field, produce energy at a cost of 4 or 5 cents a kilowatt-hour. Further refinements like lighter rotors could drop the price by another cent or two, making it directly competitive with natural gas.

Dr. Robert W. Thresher, director of the National Wind Technology Center at the energy laboratory, envisions large farms of wind turbines being built offshore. "They would be out of sight," he said. "There's no shortage of space and wind."

Solar and wind power will be hampered because the sun doesn't always shine and the wind doesn't always blow. The current power grid is not well suited for intermittent power sources because the amount of power produced at any moment must match the amount being consumed. To exploit the sun and wind, utilities would have to develop devices that could act as giant batteries.

One concept is to pump compressed air into an underground cavern. When electricity was needed, the air would be released, and the air pressure would turn a turbine to generate electricity.

The Big Ideas

Then there are the big ideas that could change everything. To get around the problem of the intermittency in solar power, solar arrays could be placed where the sun shines 24 hours a day — in space. The power could be beamed to the ground via microwaves.

Another big idea comes from Dr. Klaus S. Lackner, a professor of geophysics at Columbia University: what if carbon dioxide could be scrubbed out of the air? His back-of-the-envelope calculations indicate it may be feasible, although he is far from being ready to demonstrate how.

But if that were possible, that would eliminate the need to shift from gasoline to hydrogen for cars. That would save the time and cost of building pipelines for shipping hydrogen, and gasoline is in many ways a superior fuel than hydrogen. (Hydrogen needs to be stored under very high pressure or at very cold temperatures.) Owners of gas-guzzling S.U.V.'s could assuage their guilt by paying for the scrubbing of carbon dioxide produced by their vehicles.

Eventually, the captured carbon dioxide could be processed to create an artificial gasoline, Dr. Lackner said. Then the world would discover, much to its surprise, that everything old would be new and clean again.

"Carbon may actually be just as clean, just as renewable," Dr. Lackner said.

Thanks a lot Rob!

Posted by dario at 10:53 PM

San Sebastian-Gomera - Spain - Europe: day 339: Dawn and Mike's observations in the Med

Biking total: 43 days, 1877 km, 13'400 altimeters.
Climbing total: 174 days, 3000 km, 104'451 altimeters.
Sailing total: 122 days, 3403 nm

We meet Dawn and Mike Dorsett on sailboat White Princess in the marina of Gomera. They are dive-masters and want to contribute to the TOPtoTOP-initiative. We plan to produce a submarine film for school presentations in Barbados begin of December. That's why we are heading to Barbados end of next week. Here Dawn and Mike's observations in the Med:

As promised, here are our observations on the Med. We spent about 15 months there & got as far as Malta & Sicily, most of our diving being around Malta as we have been diving there for 10 years.
1. An invasive fresh-water weed has taken over the whole of the sea bottom around Malta, and is reaching as far as the Balearics. Wherever it grows, all normal plant life is smothered & dies. We believe it was introduced by accident & nothing eats it.
2. While diving or sailing we were unable to find much bio-luminescence in the Med until you get within 50 miles of Gibraltar. 10 years ago it was spectacular, now its all gone.
3. The numbers of fish of all species are down, even damselfish. 10 years ago you could see huge shoals of them, now there's just a few individuals & very few young ones. In addition, the ones we saw appeared to be undersized when compared with Atlantic damselfish and displayed some behavioral changes - we had never before seen them begging for food from divers, & they were quite aggressive about it - it appeared quite funny at the time to have a 3 inch long fish bite my finger & refuse to let go. The impression we got was that they were starving, and that may mean a serious decline in plankton levels.
4. In Sardinia we saw some beautiful bays with crystal clear water - and totally sterile - no fish at all in sight.
5. Finally, everywhere, you see rubbish floating around, usually plastic carrier bags, which decompose into particles resembling plankton & are mistaken for food by fish.
Best wishes,
Dawn and Mike Dorsett,
White Princess.

Thanks a lot Dawn and Mike!

Posted by dario at 11:06 PM

November 8, 2003

San Sebastian-Gomera - Spain - Europe: day 341: School visits - Media - Beach cleaning

Biking total: 43 days, 1877 km, 13'400 altimeters.
Climbing total: 174 days, 3000 km, 104'451 altimeters.
Sailing total: 124 days, 3403 nm

Am Montag, Dienstag und Mittwoch waren wir in der Schule Luiz Padron in San Sebastian in der Klasse 5A und 5B sowie in der Klasse 6A und 6B bei Total 130 Schülern. Bei unserer Präsentation wurden wir von Hanna, einer deutschen Auswanderin unterstützt, die die Übersetzung vornahm. Anschliessend suchten wir mit allen Kindern Lösungen, um die CO2-Emissionen zu reduzieren und brachten diese zu Papier. Dabei wurden wir von Alexander und Christian bei der Betreuung der Kinder tatkräftig unterstützt.
Das Spanische National Fernsehen und das TV Canaria begleiteten uns in die Schule. Anders wie in der Schweiz wollten hier gleich alle Kinder dem Journalisten ein Interview geben und ihre Zeichnung erklären.

Am schulfreien Nachmittag hatten wir wieder einmal Zeit für eine grosse Wäsche. Alexander und Christian bestiegen zwischendurch einen 100 m hohen Vulkanschlot und halfen uns am Dienstagnachmittag bei der Beach Cleaning Aktion am Strand von San Sebastian. Da Alexander und Christian Interesse zeigten uns in die Antarktis zu begleiten, diskutierten wir jeweils bis in die späte Nacht die weiteren Vorbereitungen.
Interessant war der Film, den sie uns von ihrer Skidurchquerung von Spitzbergen zeigten. Sie halfen uns auch bei den Vorbereitungen für die Atlantiküberquerung.

Am Mittwoch interviewten wir noch Antonio Darias (, den Umweltbeauftragten von San Sebastian. Dabei erklärte er uns, dass 1999 seine Gemeinde die erste auf den Kanaren gewesen sei, die die Agenda 21 unterschrieb. Am Anfang sei es sehr schwierig gewesen, die Bevölkerung für den Umweltschutz zu begeistern; doch habe inzwischen in grossen Teilen der Bevölkerung ein Gesinnungswandel zu Gunsten der Natur statt gefunden. Die grösste Umweltsünde sei aber nach wie vor, dass der gesamte Abfall über eine hohe Felswand einfach ins Meer gekippt wird; - und dies mitten in einem Naturpark!

Zusammen mit Antonio Darias kam ich danach noch zu meinem ersten Radio-Interview in Spanisch. Gegenüber Radiostationen in anderen Ländern wird in Spanien wesentlich weniger Musik gespielt und mehr diskutiert, sodass es für mich gleichzeitig auch eine gute Spanischlektion war! - Fortsetzung morgen!

Posted by dario at 2:16 PM

November 10, 2003

San Sebastian-Gomera - Spain - Europe: day 343: Garajonay National Park

Biking total: 43 days, 1877 km, 13'400 altimeters.
Climbing total: 174 days, 3000 km, 104'451 altimeters.
Sailing total: 126 days, 3403 nm

Am Donnerstag zeigte uns Ramon, der Umweltbeauftragte der Insel Gomera seine geliebte Insel:

Zuerst waren wir im Süden. Ramon erklärte uns, dass Landwirtschaft hier nicht mehr möglich sei, weil das Klima in den letzten Jahren immer trockener wurde. Die unzähligen Terrassen-Äcker sind in mühseliger Knochenarbeit mit Natursteinmauern gestützt worden. Ohne Unterhalt nagt die Erosion an ihnen und macht dieses ehemalige Kulturland instabil, sodass Strassen bei den seltenen Regenfällen von Steinschlag und Schlammlawinen überschüttet werden. Im Norden ist die Insel feuchter und die Terrassen werden in den Tälern nach wie vor bebaut. Da die EU Bananen subventioniert, sieht man viele Bananen-Plantagen. Im Jahre 2006 streicht die EU die Subventionen. Was die Bananen-Bauern dann machen, wissen heute nicht einmal die Verantwortlichen der Inselregierung. Ramon wusste weiter, dass infolge des Klimawandels die Barancos (= steile, zerklüftete Täler von den Bergspitzen bis ins Meer hinunter) nur noch selten Wasser führen und damit der Anbau von Bananen schwieriger geworden ist. Auch das Phänomen der Jahreszeiten sei verschwunden. Das Wetter macht heute was es will. Zeichen in der Natur dienten den Bauern früher als zuverlässige Wetterprognose. Heute könne man sich nicht mehr auf diese Zeichen abstützen, erklärte Ramon.

Auf dem Weg in den Norden bestiegen wir den Garajonay. Er ist mit 1487 m der höchste Gipfel von Gomera. Von diesem TOP hatten wir eine wunderbare Aussicht auf den Teide auf Tenerife, den höchsten Punkt Spaniens, den wir Wochen zuvor zweimal bestiegen haben.

Rund um den Gipfel wurde 1981 der Garajonay National Park errichtet und 1986 zum UNESCO Welterbe erkoren. Er ist 3986 Hektaren gross und besteht hauptsächlich aus dem Urwald Laurisilva mit einer interessanten Flora:

The Canarian Laurisilva is a wooded formation, subtropical in character, made up of an ample variety of evergreen trees that require humidity and mild temperature. Its enormous scientific importance lies in the abundance of endemic species that can only be found in these forests and in preserving the Terciary Flora that disappeared from the continent during the time of the glaciation.

Im Besucherzentrum des Nationalparks erfuhren wir von Ranger Jacinto, dass der Park viel Zeit in die Umweltarbeit mit Jugendlichen der Insel investiert. Ihr Programm mit originellen Umweltspielen kopieren sie uns bis nächste Woche, damit wir es in der Karibik und Lateinamerika während unseren Schulbesuchen einsetzen können.

Auf dem Weg zur Küste war ermutigend zu sehen, dass auch hier alternative Energie genutzt wird.
Am Meer bei Vallehermosa angelangt, wurde uns nochmals die Gewalt der Natur vor Augen geführt. Wo vor 6 Jahren noch ein Fischerdorf stand, sieht man nur noch mannshohe Betonblöcke der ehemaligen Hafenbefestigung am Strand liegen. Turmhohe Wellen rissen den Rest des Dorfes ins Meer. Etwas ähnliches erzählten uns die Höhlenmenschen an der Südküste. Dort hat ein Sturm die Hafenbefestigung von Santiago buchstäblich verschluckt. Solche Erscheinungen scheinen sich zu häufen !?!

Bezüglich der Klimaproblematik durchforsten wir gelegentlich den lokalen Blätterwald oder werden von anderen Seglern auf interessante Artikel aufmerksam gemacht. Ein interessanter Artikel über die Nutzung des Vulkans Teide zur Energiegewinnung fanden wir in der Zeitung "Island Connections" vom 17.10.2003, die sich an die Englischsprachigen auf Tenerife richtet:
Gemäss dem Institut für Technologie und erneuerbare Energien von Tenerife (ITER) leistet der Teide 144 Mega Watt in Form von Gas unter hohem Druck, mit dem Turbinen angetrieben werden könnten. Das ITER betreibt weiter Windturbinen und deckt damit 3-4% des Energiebedarfs von Tenerife ab. Ausserdem lässt das ITER 25 Ökohäuser bauen, die zeigen sollen, dass man ohne Komfortverlust und nur mit erneuerbarer Energie leben kann.

Posted by dario at 2:02 PM

November 16, 2003

San Sebastian-Gomera - Spain - Europe: day 349: Motor-Schock! - Umweltbericht Gomera

Biking total: 43 days, 1877 km, 13'400 altimeters.
Climbing total: 174 days, 3000 km, 104'451 altimeters.
Sailing total: 132 days, 3403 nm

Vorgestern wurden wir mit den Vorbereitungen für die Atlantiküberquerung fertig. Unsere "Last-minute-to-do-list" folgend, machten wir einen Ölwechsel. Beim Einfüllen des neuen Öls sahen wir durch den Einfüllstutzen Wassertropfen. Wir öffneten den Ventildeckel und hatten einen Schock: Da war Wasser und Rost!

Sofort schrieben wir einen Fax an die nächstgelegene Vertretung unseres Diesel-Motor-Herstellers auf Tenerife und noch am gleichen Abend erschien ein Mechaniker: Entweder sei die Zylinderkopfdichtung nicht mehr dicht oder aber der Block hat einen Riss, so dass Wasser eintreten kann. Ursache ist eine Überhitzung des Motors!
Nach diesem Bescheid verständigten wir direkt unsere Schiffsversicherung Murette AG.

Dem Mechaniker bestätigten wir, dass es uns am 2.9.03 bei widrigen Verhältnissen mit starkem Seegang den Schlauch zur Salzwasserpumpe abriss und es demzufolge zu einer Überhitzung kam. Im Hafen von Favignana kühlte Martin den Motor. Später inspizierten zwei Mechaniker der Küstenwache den Motor und meinten, dass der Motor kaum Schaden genommen haben sollte. Da der Motor nach wie vor gut lief, schöpften wir keinen Verdacht. Die zeitweiligen Probleme beim starten des Motors suchten wir fälschlicherweise im Elektrosystem oder glaubten, schlechten Diesel gebunkert zu haben.

Nun wissen wir, dass der Motor durch die Überhitzung doch Schaden genommen hat und sind frustriert, da wir die Schulbesuche auf Barbados kaum werden einhalten können. Morgen will der Mechaniker den Druck in den Zylindern messen und den Motor auseinander nehmen, um zu schauen, ob es die Dichtung oder ein Riss im Block ist.

Neben dieser schlechten Nachricht, haben wir diese Woche aber auch viel Erfreuliches erlebt: Chris aus Grossbritanien half uns mit einer klimafreundlichen Nähmaschine den Sonnenschutz fürs Grosssegel zu verlängern. Beat aus Bürgeln in der Schweiz und Mike aus GrossbritanienMike aus Grossbritanien bastelten an unserem Weltempfänger herum, sodass wir künftig Wetterfaxe über die Audioschnittstelle auf den Laptop erhalten. Elisabeth und Gerhard aus Österreich servierten uns eine Taihländische Spezialität auf ihrer Segeljacht Baloo 1. Jeden Morgen war Gerhard auf unserem Schiff und kontrollierte das Elektrosystem, um eine Lösung für unser Start-Problem zu finden. Zusammen mit Einhandsegler Bauke Boersma, hilft und berät er uns in dieser schwierigen Zeit mit unserem Motor. Beide sind Gewerbeschullehrer in Mechanik und so hat Bauke sein Motor und die Windsteueranlage für sein Schiff Seawolf alleine zusammengebaut!

Auch von den Insulanern bekamen wir Unterstützung. So zum Beispiel von Ramon, der Umweltbeautragte von Gomera. Er stellte für uns einen lokalen Umwelt-Bericht zusammen:

El Excmo. Cabildo Insular de La Gomera consciente de la importancia de preservar el medio natural de la isla, promueve a través de la Unidad de Medio Ambiente, diversos programas de restauración medioambiental.
Un buen ejemplo de restauración paisajística del medio natural gomero lo constituye el Programa de Repoblación, con ejemplares de Myrica faya, realizado en Abrante durante los últimos 4 años.
Las características geológicas de la zona así como la excelente calidad visual del conjunto, hacen de este rincón gomero uno de los más visitados de la isla
A mediados de siglo pasado se comienza en Canarias la andadura hacia la creación de los primeros Espacios Naturales Protegidos, los Parques Nacionales (1.954), teniendo su último episodio importante en 1994 con la aprobación de la Ley 12/ 1994, que regula la actual Red Canaria de Espacios Naturales Protegidos de Canarias. Esta Ley estableció los principios básicos para preservar la naturaleza de este incomparable Archipiélago Atlántico, dotada de gran belleza y singularidad.
Actualmente, los diferentes Espacios Naturales Protegidos se clasifican en siete categorías, todas ellas representadas en la isla de La Gomera: Parques Naturales, Parques Rurales, Reservas Naturales Especiales, Reservas Naturales Integrales, Monumentos Naturales, Paisajes Protegidos y Sitios de Interés Científicos.
Un tercio de la Isla de La Gomera, es decir un 33% del territorio insular, se encuentran actualmente protegido, mediante 17 Espacios Naturales, lo que sin duda da cuenta de los innegables valores paisajísticos, florísticos y faunísticos que presenta esta isla mágica.

Posted by dario at 9:58 PM